Neonatal cardiology is a sub-specialty that deals with heart diseases in children. Heart diseases in children are rare but in some cases newborns or young children are affected by certain congenital heart diseases. Early diagnosis and management of heart diseases is essential to save the lives of children. Neonatal cardiologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of infants before and after birth.
What do neonatal cardiologists do?
Neonatal cardiologists can diagnose and treat almost every type of congenital heart disease before or after birth. Children with cardiac problems may present with acute or severe conditions. Therefore it is very important to recognize their problem as early as possible. Late diagnosis can cause respiratory problems or circulation problems in children and put their lives at risk.
Neonatal cardiologists specialize in such conditions. They use a variety of treatment procedures to treat some of the most serious heart problems in children..
What are some common neonatal diseases?
During the transition to neonatal life, many changes can occur in the fetal cardiovascular system. There are several neonatal or fatal diseases that can affect babies. Neonatal Cardiologists in Amritsar divides these diseases into 4 categories which include:
- Critical cyanotic heart diseases. CCHD refers to a group of diseases with severe heart defects that are present from birth. This is due to abnormalities from the time the heart is formed during pregnancy. CCHD can make it difficult for the heart to pump blood effectively or reduce the amount of oxygen in the blood. As a result, organs and tissues throughout the body do not receive enough oxygen, which can lead to organ damage and life-threatening complications. Individuals with CCHD usually require surgery soon after birth.
Some of the most common CCHD diseases include,
- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). HLHS can affect multiple structures on the left side of the heart that do not develop properly
- Pulmonary atresia. Pulmonary is a type of valve disease that occurs when the pulmonary valve that controls the flow of blood from the right ventricle to the main pulmonary artery does not form at all.
- tetralogy of Fallot. It is a birth defect that causes poorly oxygenated blood to flow from the heart to other parts of the body. It can affect the development of the child in many ways.
- Total anomalous pulmonary venous return. In this condition, oxygenated blood from the lungs does not reach the left side of the heart, but instead returns to the right side of the heart, mixing oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood.
- transposition of the great arteries. In this condition, the heart’s two major blood vessels, the main pulmonary artery and the aorta, are closed during the growth phase. This can lead to several cortical problems and the baby may require surgery soon after birth.
- Tricuspid atresia. Tricuspid is a valve disease in which the valve between the two chambers of the heart does not form at all, but instead has a thick wall of tissue that prevents blood from passing through and causes many circulatory problems.
- Truncus arteriosus. In this condition a large blood vessel exits the heart and in addition there is a hole between the two lower chambers of the heart which is known as a ventricular septal defect. This can lead to many communication problems.
- Critical acyanotic heart disease. In this type of diseases the blood flow to the left ventricle is obstructed due to stenosis or any other reason. It can create many circulatory problems. This can reduce the flow of blood and oxygen to other parts of the body and cause organ damage.
- Arrhythmia is a condition that causes irregular heartbeat. In patients with arrhythmia, the heartbeat is too fast or too slow or not in the proper rhythm, hence it is called arrhythmia. The arrhythmia is treated as a medical emergency in a hurry and the newborn is treated with the necessary medical procedures. It can also put them at risk of conditions such as cardiac arrest or heart failure.
- Acquired heart disease. Acquired heart diseases are diseases that affect a person’s heart and its associated blood vessels during their lifetime. These conditions tend to occur in young children or newborns. There are many diseases such as coronary artery disease, pulmonary vasculature and heart valve disease that fall under the category of acquired heart disease.
If your baby is suffering from any kind of neonatal heart disorder, you must consult a Neonatal Cardiologist in Amritsar to avoid the worsening of the condition.